Whole Genome Sequencing

Whole genome sequencing is also usually referred to as full genome sequencing, entire genome sequencing and complete genome sequencing. This is a laboratory process, which determined the complete DNA sequence of the genome of an organism at a single time. In other words, whole genome sequencing is a laboratory process that intends to determine the DNA sequence of an organism.

The sequencing does not have to be of a large sample of the organism. Research has shown that even the smallest sample of an organism’s genome has DNA that can be sequenced. In other words, any biological sample of an organism contains a full copy of the DNA of that organism. However small the sample, or the DNA that can be got from it, it can provide the genetic material required for a full sequencing of the genome. Samples that can be used for sequencing include saliva, bone marrow, hair, epithelial cells, plant leaves and seeds. All that is required is that the sample has some cells that contain some form of DNA.

Once the DNA has been sequenced, the data sequenced or produced is quite large. It is for this reason that the data is electronically stored. Essential to note is that since the data collected is quite large, it requires a computer that has a large storage capacity. It has been established that without computers and microprocessors, full genome sequencing would have been quite impossible. This is mainly because; storage of the resulting data would not have been possible without computers.

Essential to note is that full genome sequencing and DNA profiling are two different things. DNA profiling only determines the likelihood that a certain DNA sample came from a particular individual or organism. DNA profiling does not deal with information that pertains to genetics relationships, susceptibility to certain diseases and origin. All it deals with is relating the DNA sample to a certain organism. On the other hand, full genome sequencing deals with everything. It has been established to deal with almost 95% of DNA sequencing. Sequencing of the human genome is a task that has taken a long time to accomplish.

The sequencing of an entire human genome was first accomplished in 2000 through the use of shotgun sequencing. However, sequencing of small genome pairs was already taking place by 1979. As sequencing went in developing, many groups of scientists started to realize its usefulness as far s information gathering is concerned. The more scientists took on sequencing of complicated genomes, the more they gathered useful information.

Eventually, scientists took on the sequencing of both ends of DNA, which was a lot more complicated than the sequencing of a single end of DNA. It was later discovered that the sequencing of opposite ends of DNA could be useful in the reconstruction of the original target fragment, which then gave birth to full genome sequencing. It was, however, not until 2000 that it was possible to sequence the entire human genome.