Despite all the things that human being can do or are capable of doing, their bodies are built on and run by less than 100,000 protein molecules. Each of these protein molecules has a corresponding gene, which is responsible for ensuring that there is a timely flow of instructions. The human being, therefore, functions by a set of genetic instructions.
The Human genome is a complement of genetic material that is found in the human cell. Though there are over a billion people in the world today, there are only minute differences between genomes, which is why it is usually referred to as the human genome, as if there is only one in the whole world. The singular reference to the human genome is only intended to stipulate how little difference there is the genomes found in different human cells.
You might then wonder that if the human genome is all the same, how come each of us is so different. The human genome is distributed about twenty three different sets of chromosomes, which have been replicated in each of us since the fusion of egg and sperm at conception. It is this, which causes our individual uniqueness. Scientists have always said that our individual uniqueness is as a result of the seven trillion cells that are preserved in each of our bodies.
Essential to note is that the human genome is a DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid. It is a natural polymer, which is built u of repeating nucleotides. Each of these nucleotides consists of a simple sugar, one of four nitrogenous bases and a phosphate group. If all the chromosomes are counted, it can be found that the human genome is comprised of about three billion base pairs of chromosomes. Also, vital to note is the fact that though the human genome has been read by DNA sequencing, it is still not well understood.
Simply put, the human genome is a set of human genetic information that is stored as DNA sequences. We have what is called the haploid human genome and the diploid human genome. The haploid human genome can be found in the egg and sperm cells. Research shows that this genome has about three billion DNA base pairs. On the other hand, the diploid genome is found in the somatic cells and has twice the DNA content as the haploid human genome. As has been stated, the human genome is still not well understood. It is for this reason that the Human Genome Project was created.
This project is said to have been the first one to produce a complete sequence of separate human genomes. By 2012, the project had finished sequencing thousands of individual human genomes and had mapped out many more for lower level resolution. Research indicates that a more understanding of the human genome will lead to better diagnosis and treatment of diseases. It will also lead to more insight into human evolution and human biology. The advantages of a better understanding of the human genome are, therefore, endless.